The areas include development of infrastructure and railways, renewable energy, environmental technology and equipment, and food processing.
The agreement was reached during talks between Deputy Prime Minister and Foreign Minister Pham Binh Minh and Slovakian counterpart Miroslav Lajcak in Hanoi on Tuesday.
Both ministers agreed to continue to maintain the mechanism of the Vietnam-Slovakia Inter-Governmental Committee on Economic Cooperation.
In their talks, the two said they will boost coordination at regional and international forums and exchanged views on various issues including the East Sea conflict.
Slovakia has ratified the Vietnam-EU Framework Agreement on Partnership and Comprehensive Cooperation and supports early conclusion of negotiations for the EU-Vietnam Free Trade Agreement (EVFTA).
Minh and Lajcak witnessed the signing of a memorandum of understanding on cooperation in environmental protection and water resource management between the two countries at the conclusion of their talks.